Cannabis is the most widely-used illegal drug in Britain.
What is Cannabis
Cannabis is also known as marijuana, and refers to products of the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa.
The plant contains the chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is responsible for generating the high feeling.
Cannabis is known as Grass, Weed, Council, Reefer, Dope, Ganjha, Skunk, Pot, Resin, Hash, and Solid.
It is categorised as a depressant, hallucinogen, and stimulant.
What does it look like?
Although it's all from the same plant, cannabis comes in different forms.
Hash is a black or brown soft lump made from the resin of the cannabis plant. It's much less common in the UK than it used to be.
Grass, or weed, is made from the dried leaves and flowering parts of the female cannabis plant and looks like tightly packed dried herbs. This traditional form of cannabis is usually grown in the UK.
Skunk is a cannabis bred to produce much higher concentrations of THC. Sinsemilla and netherweed are names of two varieties of skunk. Skunk is much stronger than traditional weed.
Cannabis oil is a sticky, dark honey-coloured substance and not common.
How it is taken?
Most people smoke cannabis in hand-rolled cigarettes mixed with tobacco known as spliffs or joints. It can also be smoked in pipes or water pipes known as bongs, or in emptied cigars, partly or completely refilled with cannabis, known as blunts.
To avoid inhaling smoke, more people are using vaporizers. These devices pull the active ingredients from the cannabis and collect the vapour in a storage unit. A person then inhales the vapour, not the smoke.
Some people mix cannabis in food such as cakes, biscuits, or sweets, or even brew it as a tea. Edibles take longer to have an effect.
A growing method of use is smoking or eating different forms of THC-rich resins extracted from the plant and referred to as dabbing.
Popular forms of the resins are:
These resins can deliver extremely large amounts of THC to users, and their use has sent some people to the emergency room.
Preparing these resins usually involves butane (lighter fluid). Many people who have used butane to make the resins have caused fires and explosions, and some have been seriously burned.
What are the effects
Cannabis can provide a genuine feeling of calm, relaxation, and pleasure with a sharper sense of colours and sounds. In addition, there is also growing evidence that it can provide relief for chronic pain where many other medications do not work.
Cannabis can have a number of negative side effects both short and long term. Some will disappear as soon as cannabis smoking stops, and some will persist for years afterwards.
When smoking cannabis, people can become hungry, referred to as 'getting the munchies', harmless except to one's waistline. By contrast, some people have one or two drags on a joint and feel light-headed, faint and sick, called a 'whitey'.
Regular use can reduce concentration, memory and motivation. This is particularly serious for young people whose brains are still developing, and still in education.
More serious possible effects of cannabis, include anxiety, suspicion, panic and paranoia, even hallucinations. These symptoms often abate when smoking stops.
Probably the most serious side effect of cannabis, is that some people develop serious, long-term mental health problems like schizophrenia. People with a family history of psychotic illnesses are particularly vulnerable, while those with a personal history are susceptible to a relapse or their condition worsening.
Cannabis can increase heart rate and affect blood pressure, which can be dangerous for people with heart disease.
Tobacco and cannabis share some of the same chemicals, so smoking cannabis can make asthma worse, cause wheezing and lead to lung cancer. Also, mixing cannabis with tobacco introduces all the risks associated with smoking tobacco, ranging from coughs and chest infections to cancer or heart disease.
A review of cannabis in the British Medical Journal found those driving under the influence of cannabis had nearly double the risk of a crash. Mixing cannabis with alcohol can have particularly serious consequences - the accident rate is 16 times higher than for cannabis or alcohol alone.
When a person smokes cannabis, THC quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream. The blood carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body very quickly so the effects are felt quickly.
By contrast, the body absorbs THC more slowly when the person eats or drinks it, and the user generally feels the effects after 30 minutes to 1 hour. If taken in food, effects can be stronger and harder to control.
Is cannabis a gateway drug?
There are strong opinions on the subject of cannabis being a gateway drug. While some research suggests that cannabis users may go on to harder drugs, the vast majority of people do not do so according to surveys.
In the UK, Cannabis is a Class B drug; illegal to have, give away or sell. Possession can result in up to five years in prison, an unlimited fine, or both. Supplying people, including friends, can result in up to 14 years in prison and/or an unlimited fine.
The trend in the West appears to be towards the legalisation of Cannabis for medical and personal, which many argue is less harmful than legal drugs like alcohol. UK MPs have urged the government to leglise Cannabis in the UK.
The President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos, has used his Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech to call for the world to "rethink" the war on drugs.
He said the zero-tolerance policy might be "even more harmful" than all the other wars being fought worldwide.Drugs workers fear a "bad batch of heroin" could have led to the deaths of at least seven drug users in recent weeks in the Gwent Police force area.
Drugs workers fear a "bad batch of heroin" could have led to the deaths of at least seven drug users in recent weeks in the Gwent Police force area.
According to NHS figures, 1,087 babies in England were affected by maternal use of drugs in 2014-15, while in Scotland 987 babies were affected.
The Metropolitan Police has said it will examine 58 GHB-related deaths, following the conviction of serial killer Stephen Port.
A leading police chief says recreational drug testing "may be very useful". Commander Bray is in discussion with the government about it.
Britain should follow America's lead and legalise cannabis, and rake in £1 billion a year in tax revenues
Marijuana legalization will unleash misery on Arizona, according to a wave of television ads that started rolling out across the state last month.
Police in Denmark have arrested a man and woman on suspicion of providing cannabis to cancer patients and people with other serious illnesses.
The National Drugs Helpline is a 24-hour, 7-days a week, free and confidential telephone service that offers advice and information for anyone.
It is run by the government agency, known as FRANK, created to provide drug support and advice for the public.
If you need emergency help, are worried about a friend or relative's drug use or want support coping with your own, contact FRANK on-line contact or by phone.
Even for a puppy, Kat Donatello's black lab, Austin, was hyperactive. After experimenting with natural supplements on her older dog, Brady, Donatello slipped the puppy a special biscuit. "It just kind of took the edge off of him," she recalled.
The treat contained Cannabidiol, better known as CBD, a chemical compound extracted from the marijuana plant.
More pregnant women are using marijuana now than a decade ago, and the rate is particularly high among younger pregnant women, according to new analysis of data published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Researchers combed through data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, focusing on more than 200,000 women from 18 to 44 years old. Among that group, 5.3 percent were pregnant at the time of the survey.
Canada's government should regulate the production of cannabis for recreational use and require plain packaging an official panel recommended.
How cannabis is sold should be left up to the provinces and should include both retail storefronts and a mail order system, the report recommended. Authorities have been battling a surge in illegal dispensaries over the past year, particularly in Ontario and British Columbia.
The US Drug Enforcement Agency has shown signs this summer of allowing more farms to grow cannabis for official research purposes. Currently, researchers depend on 1 farm at the University of Mississippi for cannabis.
Eight states have voted to legalize recreational marijuana, and 28 states now allow its use for medical purposes. Under federal law, however, marijuana continues to be classified as a highly dangerous illegal drug.
Behind the covered windows of a nondescript two-story building hundreds of marijuana plants were flowering in the purple haze of 40 LED lights.
It was part of a high-stakes experiment in energy conservation - an undertaking subsidized by the local electric company. With cannabis cultivation poised to become a big business in some parts of the country, power companies and government officials hope it will grow into a green industry.
Cannabis should be legalised in the UK, according to a report that has the backing of several cross-party MPs.
Current cannabis policy in Britain is a "messy patchwork" of legislation, says the report by the free-market thinktank the Adam Smith Institute. The government must recognise that legalising the Class B drug is the "only workable solution to the problems of crime and addiction in the UK.
25 years ago, pharmacologist M. E. West of the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, noted that local fisherman who smoke cannabis or drink rum made with the leaves and stems of the plant had "an uncanny ability to see in the dark. "It was impossible to believe that anyone could navigate a boat without compass and light in such treacherous surroundings," he wrote after accompanying a crew one dark night, "[but] I was then convinced that the man had far better night vision than I had.
Queen Victoria was prescribed cannabis for period pains, and the US is embracing medicinal cannabis again - it's legally available in 25 states for conditions such as Aids, chronic pain, and seizures.
In the UK, the only indication for medical cannabis is for painful, tightening muscle spasms (spasticity) in multiple sclerosis. Sativex, an oral spray that uses two chemical extracts from the cannabis plant.
Faced with stark numbers of brain trauma and psychological distress cases among combat veterans, the nation's largest active veteran's organization is pushing for relaxing federal restrictions on marijuana.
The American Legion took a position on medical marijuana for the first time. At its convention, it passed a resolution calling on Congress to amend its laws to "at a minimum ... recognize cannabis as a drug with potential medical value".
One of the biggest detractors from legalization is the public sentiment that it will lead to easier teen access to cannabis. A new study on Washington State has shown that that will not be the case. In fact, not only does it not make cannabis easier to get, it makes hard drugs harder.
The study presented at the Pediatric Societies 2016 meeting on 1 May shows that there is virtually no change in teen perception on access to cannabis.
Most marijuana users enjoy the drug's ability to induce a sense of euphoria, but that doesn't come without side effects. Indeed, research shows that using marijuana can cause a variety of short and long-term effects.
While almost everyone is familiar with the sudden desire for junk food caused by smoking weed - commonly referred to as the 'munchies' - many of the drug's other effects are lesser known.
Tim Farron is to become the first leader of one of Britain's main political parties to call for the legalisation of cannabis for recreational use after declaring that the war on drugs is over.
In one of the most significant moves by the Liberal Democrats since they were reduced to a shell of just eight MPs at the election, Farron will call on the government to develop a framework for the legal regulation of cannabis.
It's been a year since Colorado became the first state in the US to legalise marijuana, and its impact on health, crime, employment and other factors can now be more empirically measured.
So, did it bring about an apocalypse as some feared? "We found there hasn't been much of a change of anything," a Denver police officer told CBC. "Basically, officers aren't seeing much of a change in how they do police work."
Cannabis is still the most widely used substance in the UK, even thoughthere has been a steady reduction in use since 1996.
In spite of warnings, many people see cannabis as a safe substance that helps you to relax. Research over the last 10 years has suggested that it can have serious consequences for people, such as the development of an enduring psychotic illness, particularly in those who are genetically vulnerable.
Indica and sativa are the two main types of cannabis.
Today, it is widely accepted that marijuana has two different species: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. Cross-breeding of the two types has led to a wide variety of hybrid strains with unique characteristics.
The differences between indica and sativa remain a subject of much debate, especially among scientists who study the plant.
The amount of time your body retains traces of marijuana depends on a number of factors, including how often you smoke and your metabolism.
Urine testing is the most common way of screening for marijuana use. But how long will marijuana show up in your urine? The accurate answer is: it depends.
THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. However, urine tests detect a different chemical called THC-COOH.
The teenager's brain must transform from the brain of a child into the brain of an adult. Some researchers worry how marijuana might affect the process.
"Actually, in childhood our brain is larger," says Krista Lisdahl, director of the brain imaging and neuropsychology lab at University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. "Then, during the teenage years, our brain is getting rid of those connections that weren't really used, and it prunes back.
Recently legalised in the Washington and Colorado, marijuana has medical and recreational uses but can also be damaging. The high from marijuana comes from Tetrahydrocannabinol, which is found in varying potency.
Most of THC's effects happen in the brain, where the chemical interacts with cannibinoid receptors in the brain. Our bodies make chemicals similar to THC andTHC co-opts these natural pathways to produce most of its effects.
A former government adviser has told MPs that alcohol consumption would fall by as much as 25% if Dutch-style cannabis "coffee shops" were introduced.
Prof David Nutt also told the Commons home affairs committee that he stood by his claim that horse-riding was more dangerous than taking ecstasy, despite the fact that the comparison triggered his sacking as chairman of the advisory committee on the misuse of drugs.